VINCENT REAL ESTATE GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Accredited Investors: An accredited or sophisticated investor is an investor with a special status under financial regulation laws. In order to qualify as an accredited investor you must meet at least one of the following criteria: At least $200 thousand in gross income for the past two years, $300 thousand for a couple, and the expectation you’ll earn at this level in the current year; or Net worth exceeding $1 million for an individual or couple; or General partners, executive officers, and directors of issuers of unregistered securities.
Auction Markets: An auction market is a market in which buyers indicate the highest price they are willing to pay and sellers indicate the lowest price they are willing to accept. A trade occurs when the buyer and seller agree on a price.
Blind Pool: A closed-end fund or closed-ended fund is a collective investment model based on issuing a fixed number of shares that are not redeemable from the fund. Unlike open-end funds, new shares in a closed-end fund are not created by managers to meet demand from investors.
Bonds: In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders. The most common types of bonds include municipal bonds and corporate bonds.
Capital Markets: A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt or equity-backed securities are bought and sold. Capital markets channel the wealth of savers to those who can put it to long-term productive use, such as companies or governments making long-term investments.
Common Stocks: Common stock is a form of corporate equity ownership, a type of security.
Correlated/Correlation: When two sets of data are strongly linked together we say they have a High Correlation. The word Correlation is made of Co- (meaning “together”), and Relation. Correlation is Positive when the values increase together, and. Correlation is Negative when one value decreases as the other increases.
Deal Flow: Deal flow is a term used by finance professionals such as venture capitalists, angel investors, private equity investors, and investment bankers to refer to the rate at which they receive business proposals/investment offers.
Demographics: Demography is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings. Demography encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations, and spatial or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging, and death.
Depreciation: In accountancy, depreciation refers to two aspects of the same concept: first, the actual decrease in value of fair value of an asset, such as the decrease in value of factory equipment each year as it is used and wears, and second, the allocation in accounting statements of the original cost of the assets to periods in which the assets are used.
Direct Ownership: Direct Ownership means ownership by an owner but excluding any such ownership with or through Associates and Affiliates of such owner. The terms “directly own” and “directly owned” have correlative meanings.
Diversification/Diversified: Portfolio diversification means investing in multiple different asset classes and risk levels in an effort to mitigate overall investment risk.
Exchanges: An exchange, is known as a trading exchange or trading venue, is an organized market where tradable securities, commodities, foreign exchange, futures, and options contracts are sold and bought.
Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs): An exchange-traded fund is an investment fund traded on stock exchanges, much like stocks. An ETF holds assets such as stocks, commodities, or bonds and generally operates with an arbitrage mechanism designed to keep it trading close to its net asset value, although deviations can occasionally occur.
Hard Assets: In finance, a “hard asset” may be real estate, commodities, or energy. For example, gold and silver are regarded as “hard” assets. Other types of raw materials, such as oil, copper, and aluminum. are also considered “hard” assets. Such assets are distinguished from “soft” assets such as stocks and bonds.
Impact Investing: Impact investing refers to investments “made into companies, organizations, and funds with the intention to generate a measurable, beneficial social or environmental impact alongside a financial return”. Impact investments provide capital to address social and/or environmental issues.
Interest Expense: Interest expense relates to the cost of borrowing money. It is the price that a lender charges a borrower for the use of the lender’s money. On the income statement, interest expense can represent the cost of borrowing money from banks, bond investors, and other sources.
Investment Portfolio: An investment portfolio is a basket of assets that can hold stocks, bonds, cash and more. Investors aim for a return by mixing these securities in a way that reflects their risk tolerance and financial goals.
Investment Vehicles: An investment vehicle is a product used by investors to gain positive returns. Investment vehicles can be low risk, such as certificates of deposit (CDs) or bonds, or they can carry a greater degree of risk, such as stocks, options, and futures.
Market Sectors: The term market sector is used in economics and finance to describe a part of the economy. It is usually a broader term than industry, which is a set of businesses that are buying and selling such similar goods and services that they are in direct competition with each other.
Mortgage-Backed Security (MBS): A mortgage-backed security is a type of asset-backed security which is secured by a mortgage or collection of mortgages. The mortgages are aggregated and sold to a group of individuals that securitizes, or packages, the loans together into a security that investors can buy.
Mutual Funds: A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchase securities. These investors may be retail or institutional in nature. Mutual funds have advantages and disadvantages compared to direct investing in individual securities.
Non-Correlated: A correlation of 0 means that the returns of assets are completely uncorrelated. If two assets are considered to be non-correlated, the price movement of one asset has no effect on the price movement of the other asset.
Paper Assets: A paper asset is any type of asset that is carried on a balance sheet but cannot be converted into cash quickly or easily.
Paper Investments: A number of different kinds of popular investments in the United States qualify as paper investments. These include stocks, bonds, mutual funds, certificates of deposits, and money market accounts. Shares of stock are pieces of paper that relate a certain percentage of ownership in a publicly-traded company.
Private Placements: Private placement is a funding round of securities which are sold not through a public offering, but rather through a private offering, mostly to a small number of chosen investors. Generally, these investors include friends and family, accredited investors, and institutional investors.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITS): A real estate investment trust (REIT) is a company that owns, and in most cases operates, income-producing real estate. REITs own many types of commercial real estate, ranging from office and apartment buildings to warehouses, hospitals, shopping centers, hotels and timberlands.
Securities: A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal definition varies by jurisdiction.
Shares: In financial markets, a share is a unit used as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts. The owner of shares in the company is a shareholder of the corporation. A share is an indivisible unit of capital, expressing the ownership relationship between the company and the shareholder.
Socially Responsible Investing (SRI): Socially responsible investing, or social investment, also known as sustainable, socially conscious, “green” or ethical investing, is any investment strategy which seeks to consider both financial return and social/environmental good to bring about social change regarded as positive by proponents.
Stocks: Stock of a corporation, is all of the shares into which ownership of the corporation is divided. Shares are collectively known as “stock”. A single share of the stock represents fractional ownership of the corporation in proportion to the total number of shares.
Stock Trading: Stock trading, also known as refers to the buying and selling of shares in a particular company; if you own the stock, you own a piece of the company.
Tax-Sheltered: Tax shelters are any method of reducing taxable income resulting in a reduction of the payments to tax collecting entities, including state and federal governments. The methodology can vary depending on local and international tax laws.
Value-Added Investments: Value-add investors seek to generate heightened yields by harvesting untapped revenue potential or creating value through property upgrades. Although the premise has been around for ages, value-add investment is sweeping the multifamily markets.
Volatility: In finance, volatility is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time, usually measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices.
Wealth Preservation: Wealth Preservation. Wealth preservation involves managing your assets in such a way to ensure that the value of your assets does not decrease or erode. With wealth preservation objectives, the notion of maintaining existing wealth is more important than making more money.